Quality Questioning Activities

Quality Questioning

Quality Questioning- Walsh & Sattes  2nd Edition, 2017

Chapter 1- Setting the Stage:  What is Quality Questioning?

Chapter 2- Prepare the Question:  What are the Distinguishing Features of Quality Questions?

Chapter 3- Present the Question:   How Can Teachers Engage All Students in Thinking and Responding? 

Chapter 4- Prompt Student Thinking:   how Can Teachers Assist Students in Making Connections?

Chapter 5- Process Responses:  How Can Teachers Use Feedback to Deepen Student Thinking and Learning?

Chapter 6- Polish Questioning Practices:  How Can Practice Reflection and Dialogue About Classroom Questioning Improve Teaching and Learning. 

Explore QR Codes embedded In the book 

Alternate Response Structures 

Appendix

Affinity Mapping

Four Square Share

Ink Think

Interview Design

Save the Last Word for Me

Synetics

Table rounds

Embedded in chapters

Choral Response= Ch- 3

Data on Display- Ch- 3

Fishbowl- Ch- 3

Number Heads – Ch- 3

Peoplegraph- Ch- 3

Say-it-in-a word- Ch 3

See, Think, Wonder- Ch 5

Signaled Response- Ch 3

Think, Pair, Share -Ch 3 & 5

Work Samples- Ch 3

QUALITY QUESTIONING POINTS

The following is a list of important “nuggets of knowledge” from Quality Questioning:

► Most students don’t understand that when they don’t respond because they are not sure of the answer, they deprive the teacher of information he or she could use to help students learn. (p. 17)

► Teachers who believe questions are tools for actively engaging students in learning dedicate time and effort to formulating a limited number of focus-questions as part of their lesson planning. (p. 26)

► Checks for understanding are questions that gauge student progress toward identified learning goals, and typically engage students in thinking above the simple recall level. Using questions that check for understanding at critical junctures…helps a teacher determine whether to move forward or reteach. (p. 43)

► “No hand-raising except to ask a question, not to answer.” (p. 83)

► To use a particular structure (response structure) successfully, teach it to the students in advance, and let them practice so that they are familiar with the structure before they are asked to use it. (p. 104)

► “No Opt-Out” Policy. The choice between sticking with a student and requiring a response, or giving students a free pass, reflects our beliefs: Do we think all students, with appropriate assistance, can respond correctly? (p. 109-110)

► Life lessons students learn from a classroom that values questioning. (p. 111)

► Teacher prompts that help students understand the question. (p. 125)

► Question stems for students to use to build upon one another’s ideas. (p. 135)

Diagram

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► Seven qualities associated with effective feedback: interactive, reciprocal, informative, understandable, timely, actionable, and capacity building. (p. 147-148)

► Four criteria for praise: contingency, specificity, credibility, and sincerity. (p. 162)

► Feedback of all types typically serves to close or terminate student’s answering. During a discussion where there is no single “right” answer, simple feedback can interfere with –and even shut down – student thinking. All types of feedback should be used sparingly and carefully. (p. 167)

JIGSAW TECHNIQUE

Instructional strategies

https://www.edutopia.org/blog/22-powerful-closure-activities-todd-finley

https://lead4ward.com/playlists/

Instructional Strategies Playlists – lead4wardinstructional strategies. Download All Strategies –> The lead4ward Instructional Strategies Playlists are designed to provide teachers with detailed descriptions of specific, instructional strategies, many of which are modeled and experienced in lead4ward professional development sessions.lead4ward.com

Quality Questioning

Walsh & Sattes on Questioning (2 Minutes)

The following is a list of important “nuggets of knowledge” from Quality Questioning:

► Most students don’t understand that when they don’t respond because they are not sure of the answer, they deprive the teacher of information he or she could use to help students learn. (p. 17)

► Teachers who believe questions are tools for actively engaging students in learning dedicate time and effort to formulating a limited number of focus-questions as part of their lesson planning. (p. 26)

► Checks for understanding are questions that gauge student progress toward identified learning goals, and typically engage students in thinking above the simple recall level. Using questions that check for understanding at critical junctures…helps a teacher determine whether to move forward or reteach. (p. 43)

► “No hand-raising except to ask a question, not to answer.” (p. 83)

► To use a particular structure (response structure) successfully, teach it to the students in advance, and let them practice so that they are familiar with the structure before they are asked to use it. (p. 104)

► “No Opt-Out” Policy. The choice between sticking with a student and requiring a response, or giving students a free pass, reflects our beliefs: Do we think all students, with appropriate assistance, can respond correctly? (p. 109-110)

► Life lessons students learn from a classroom that values questioning. (p. 111)

► Teacher prompts that help students understand the question. (p. 125)

► Question stems for students to use to build upon one another’s ideas. (p. 135)

► Seven qualities associated with effective feedback: interactive, reciprocal, informative, understandable, timely, actionable, and capacity building. (p. 147-148)

► Four criteria for praise: contingency, specificity, credibility, and sincerity. (p. 162)

► Feedback of all types typically serves to close or terminate student’s answering. During a discussion where there is no single “right” answer, simple feedback can interfere with –and even shut down – student thinking. All types of feedback should be used sparingly and carefully. (p. 167)

Walsh & Sattes- How to Ask a Quality Question ( 2 Minutes)

Personalize Questions (5 Minutes)

Open ended questions (<3 Minutes)

Engaging students the right way! (10 minutes)

Walsh Sattes Webinar on Quality Questioning ( 1 hour 10 minutes) –

5 Top Tips for Effective Questions

Quigly article on “Questioning-Top ten Strategies”-

Learn from Mistakes (2 minutes)

UBD (7 minutes)

PBL Support

Links to videos

Creativity expert Sir Ken Robinson challenged the way we educate our children, championing a radical rethink of how our school systems cultivate creativity and acknowledge multiple types of intelligence.

Why you should listen

Why don’t we get the best out of people? Sir Ken Robinson believed that it’s because we’ve been educated to become good workers, rather than creative thinkers. Students with restless minds and bodies — far from being cultivated for their energy and curiosity — are ignored or even stigmatized, with terrible consequences. “We are educating people out of their creativity,” Robinson said. It’s a message with deep resonance. Robinson’s first TED Talk has been distributed widely around the Web since its release in June 2006. The most popular words framing blog posts on his talk? “Everyone should watch this.”

A visionary cultural leader, Sir Ken led the British government’s 1998 advisory committee on creative and cultural education, a massive inquiry into the significance of creativity in the educational system and the economy, and was knighted in 2003 for his achievements. His 2009 book, The Element: How Finding Your Passion Changes Everything, is a New York Times bestseller and has been translated into 21 languages. A 10th-anniversary edition of his classic work on creativity and innovation, Out of Our Minds: Learning to be Creative, was published in 2011. His 2013 book, Finding Your Element: How to Discover Your Talents and Passions and Transform Your Life, is a practical guide that answers questions about finding your personal Element. And in Creative Schools: The Grassroots Revolution That’s Transforming Education, he reasoned for an end to our outmoded industrial educational system and proposed a highly personalized, organic approach that draws on today’s unprecedented technological and professional resources to engage all students.In this talk from RSA Animate, Sir Ken Robinson lays out the link between 3 troubling trends: rising drop-out rates, schools’ dwindling stake in the arts, and ADHD. An important, timely talk for parents and teachers… Still timely today!

Ken Robinson Video

PBL – rationale

“Understanding By Design” 
In this video Jay McTighe explains “Understanding By Design” ….

UBD in a nutshell

John Hattie, Visible Learning

Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934)
The zone of proximal development (ZPD) (zona blizhaishego razvitiia)  In contemporary education research and practice ZPD is often interpreted as the distance between what a learner can do without help, and what they can do with support from someone with more knowledge or expertise (“more knowledgeable other”). The concept was introduced, but not fully developed, by Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky(1896–1934) during the last three years of his life. Vygotsky argued that a child gets involved in a dialogue with the “more knowledgeable other” such as a peer or an adult and gradually, through social interaction and sense-making, develops the ability to solve problems independently and do certain tasks without help. Following Vygotsky, some educators believe that the role of education is to give children experiences that are within their zones of proximal development, thereby encouraging and advancing their individual learning such as skills and strategies

Vygotsky
 defined scaffolding instruction as the “role of teachers and others in supporting the learners development and providing support structures to get to that next stage or levelBelow are four tips for using scaffolding in the classroom.

  • Know Each Student’s ZPD. In order to use ZPD and scaffolding techniques successfully, it’s critical to know your students’ current level of knowledge. … 
  • Encourage Group Work. … 
  • Don’t Offer Too Much Help. … 
  • Have Students Think Aloud.
  • High Tech High 

    INDIA- VEGA School

    ZPD- Why it matters!

    https://sites.google.com/site/qim501eiddmockingjay/discussion

    The zone of proximal development (ZPD), is the difference between what a learner can do without help and what he or she can do with help. It is a concept developed by Soviet psychologist and social constructivist Lev Vygotsky (1896 – 1934).

    Vygotsky stated that a child follows an adult’s example and gradually develops the ability to do certain tasks without help or assistance. Vygotsky’s often-quoted definition of zone of proximal development presents it as “the distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance, or in collaboration with more capable peers.”

    Vygotsky among other educational professionals believes the role of education to be to provide children with experiences which are in their ZPD, thereby encouraging and advancing their individual learning.

    John Hattie – Visible Learning

    We looked at John Hattie in an article recently, and I thought viewing a video where he talks openly about what “ingredients” lead to effective teaching would be helpful to us all.  


    As you watch these videos -in PLCs or on your own -jot down some questions that jump out at you. You can share these with me, and we can then use them to share out (anonymously) among ourselves to collaboratively make us all stronger as a school..

    John Hattie on Visible Learning and Feedback in the Classroom

    John Hattie: Visible Learning Pt1. Disasters and below average methods.

    John Hattie, Visible Learning. Pt 2: effective methods:

    Tony Wagner- 7 Skills to close the global achievement gap!

    “The Global Achievement Gap, Why Even Our Best Schools Don’t Teach the New Survival Skills Our Children Need — and What We Can Do About It” –Tony Wagner


    In a global economy that runs on innovation and curiosity, our schools still teach to standardized tests. 


    Wagner identified seven skills to meet the challenge of a global economy and begin to close the global achievement gap:

    • Critical thinking and problem solving — Teachers spend many hours on practice questions, test-taking strategies, and helping students memorize facts to prepare students to pass multiple-choice tests. In a workplace more complicated than ever, solutions to real life problems are not multiple-choice.

    • Leading By Influence — Students spend most of their school time learning in isolation. The world of work now requires employees to work in teams to accomplish company goals. Students must be prepared to present their ideas to others and advocate their position in developing a solution.

    • Agility and Adaptability — There is only one right answer in school. In the world of work, there is no perfect answer. Often, the answer is quickly invalidated by rapidly changing technology. 21st century employees need to be flexible, adaptable, and lifelong learners.

    • Initiative and Entrepreneurialism — The business model has changed. It is no longer a top-down institution with bosses in command. Employees are expected to bring skills to the workplace that allow them to figure out how to overcome obstacles. The teacher-as-boss model used in school teaches learners to focus on the assigned task but ill-prepared to think beyond the assigned task.

    • Effective Oral and Written Conversation — Most of the time in the classroom is direct instruction with the teacher talking and the students listening. Students need more focus on developing the written and verbal skills required to make clear and precise presentations.

    • Accessing and Analyzing Data — While students have limited data in the classroom: a textbook, lecture notes, and the web, the unlimited data from computers and smartphones make it essential for students to discern valid information from misinformation.

    • Curiosity and Imagination — The ability to ask good questions is the number one skill employers look for. 21st century employees must have the ability to think fast and develop imaginative solutions to problems in a rapidly changing world.

    Source:https://medium.com/@BabyMonsterToys/the-7-skills-needed-to-close-the-global-achievement-gap-why-american-students-are-falling-behind-ec5d135c5ec2

    Tony Wagnerhttps://www.tonywagner.com

    John Hattie – impacts of distance learning

    Education expert John Hattie weighs in on the impacts of distance learning

    By:  Wade Zaglas  in  In The ClassroomOpinionTop Stories April 23, 2020 

    Professor John Hattie’s Visible Learning framework needs no introduction to educators.

    It has been used in schools across Australia for years now to deliver consistent, evidence-based learning outcomes and is the culmination of synthesizing more than 1,500 meta-analyses comprising more than 90,000 studies and 300 million students around the world. 

    Visible Learning helps educators to not only structure a lesson effectively (e.g. through learning objectives and success criteria), but also understand the extent to which different factors influence a student’s education (e.g. socioeconomic background, teacher efficacy and so on). 

    One factor that has gone under the radar is the effect remote or distance learning will have on the learning outcomes of Australian students, and Hattie addresses this critical topic in a recent online blog.

    To begin, Hattie asks: “First, does it matter that students are not in the physical place called school?”

    Hattie highlights that, although no meta-analysis exists on the effect on the length of a school year, traditional reviews show the effect to be “tiny”. Also, both Australia and the US have some of the longest school days and school years across all of the OECD countries, meaning we have some room to give.

    “If we take out one term/semester of 10 weeks, [Australia and the US] still have more in-school time compared to Finland, Estonia, Korea and Sweden, which all outscore Australia and the USA on PISA,” Hattie says.

    Hattie also mentions that data exists on the effect of teacher strikes and “lengthy shut outs”. He contends that the effect on student learning is very low before the middle years but increases “after middle school, especially in math”. 

    The education expert also refers to his experience as an advisor to the Qualifications Authority that oversees senior high school examinations in New Zealand. During the devastating earthquakes of 2011, Christchurch’s school system was severely disrupted and there was “a cry for special dispensations for high school examinations”.

    Hattie argued the opposite, basing his judgement on “strike research, which showed no effects at this upper school level, with positive effects in some cases”.

    “Sure enough, the performance of Christchurch students went up, and as schools resumed, the scores settled back down,” he says.

    “Why? Because teachers tailored learning more to what students could NOT do, whereas often school is about what teachers think students need, even if students can already do the tasks.”

    In summary, Hattie urges teachers and parents to not panic if students miss out on 10 weeks or so of face-to-face learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. He also recommends no meaningless “busy work” over the period and giving students sufficient opportunities to learn things they do not know.

    After all: “It is not the time in class, but what we do in the time we have, that matters.” 

    The bigger challenge

    Although Hattie asserts that time away from school does not result in devastating learning outcomes, he cautions that equity is a far more concerning factor.

    “Students who come from well-resourced families will fare much better than those from lower resourced families: The effect of home resources is powerful (d = .51),” he says.

    “I have rarely met a parent who does not want to help the child, but some do not have the skills. Remember, we made schooling compulsory because teachers are better at teaching than parents.” 

    There are, however, other aspects of the home that can be controlled and do have an effect on learning. These include parental involvement (.43) and particularly parental expectations (.70).

    On technology

    Hattie highlights that the effect size of technology has been low for the last 50 years, and remains so. 

    “The effect of distance learning is small (.14) but that does not mean it is NOT effective – it means it does not matter whether teachers undertake teaching in situ or from a distance over the internet (or, like when I started in my first university, via the post office),” he says. 

    “What we do matters, not the medium of doing it.”

    Although some forms of technology are highly effective, such as interactive videos (.54), others such as laptops (.16) and mobile phones (-.34) have a minimal or even negative effect. However, Hattie explains these effect sizes have been undertaken in classrooms and are therefore “not so relevant in this crisis”.

    For Hattie, social media is perhaps one of the best technological assets during the COVID-19 pandemic. 

    “Marie Davis (2018) has explored asking students to use social media, such as Edmodo, to have students send questions and talk about what they do not know,” Hattie says.

    “They are more likely to do this on social media than directly to the teacher. What an opportunity to exploit in the current situation!”

    Some final thoughts on distance learning

    In summarising his approach to best exploit distance learning during this pandemic, Hattie emphasises several key points:

    • Optimising social interaction between peers and teachers
    • Listen to student feedback carefully as you do not have the usual classroom cues to look out for
    • Balance “precious knowledge with deep learning”
    • Understand what it is to be a learner online
    • Question how you can know your impact as an educator from afar 
    • Collaborate more with other teachers to share ideas, observations and tips

    Finally, Hattie recommends that educators (and parents) acknowledge that the world is going through a difficult though temporary period and schooling will not look the same.

    “Engage with parents to realize we as educators have unique skills and expertise (and are happy to share them), and not get upset if students are not spending 5-6 hours every day in the belief that school at home is but a mirror of the typical school day.”  

    General Resources

    LINKS